Surrender And Regrant Agreement

The Crown program was attractive to Gaelic chiefs for a number of reasons. They were tired of the war and feared for the power of the crown, as evidenced by the fate of the rebels of 1534. Many rebels had been executed and many of Kildare`s property had been confiscated. According to English law, the land of a reign became the personal succession of the Lord. This gave irish leaders greater control over their territories, and the urbeument promised more inner peace within the Gaelic reigns. With Henry`s death in 1547, forty of the great Gaelic and Anglo-Irish lords had come forward, and Ireland enjoyed a level of peace unknown for years. However, not all Irish clans were prepared to abandon the brehon law and some continued to choose their leaders in defiance of English law. A controversial succession of Tyrone and the violence that followed revealed that Henry`s reconciliation programme in Ulster had not been successful. Abandonment and re-release will cause as many problems as they have solved and have ultimately failed to offer an inexpensive alternative to military conquest. In July 1540 Sir Anthony Saint Leger replaced Sir Leonard Gray as Lord Deputy of Ireland. Under his leadership, a new direction was taken to win the loyalty of the king`s Irish subjects and restore order in Ireland. In the first phase, Irish chiefs and Anglo-Irish lords, whose title and/or loyalty were at issue, were invited to submit to the king by signing an intrusion that “capitulates” their country and its title in exchange for a royal patent and an English title.

The title bore the full weight of English law and the right to be invited to Parliament. In short, the Earls and Irish barons were offered constitutional equality with their Anglo-Irish peers, both vassals of the King of England. In addition to abandoning their lands and titles, the Irish lords agreed to practice inheritance through Primogenitur rather than the usual Gaelic system of electoral succession or Tanistry. They also renounced papal supremacy in favour of royal authority. The policy has made an important contribution to the establishment of peace and security in Ireland. Equally important was the passage of the King`s Title Act, passed by the Irish Parliament in 1541. Previously, like all monarchs since Henry II, in the 12th century, Henry had the title of Lord of Ireland awarded by Pope Adrian IV. The new law dispelled any assertion that the true master of Ireland was the pope. All the Irish, The Gaelic and the Anglo-Irish, owed their loyalty to the King of Ireland; (theoretically) were the distinctions and tensions created by the existence of two separate peoples – the loyal English and the Irish enemies.